# CASIO FX-500ES (01) PDF MANUAL

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****** Page 1 ****** fx-500ES User’s Guide CASIO world.casio.com.edu/ RCA502127-001V01

****** Page 2 ****** CASIO Europe GmbH Bornbarch 10, 22848 Norderstedt, Germany

****** Page 3 ****** About this Manual • The mark indicates an example that uses Math format, while the mark indicates Linear format. For details about input/output formats, see “Specifying the Input/Output Format”. • Keycap markings indicate what a key inputs or what function it performs. example: D, E, etc. • Pressing the or key followed by a second key performs the alternate function of the second key. The alternate function is indicated by the text printed above the key. Keycap function Alternate function sin-I D sin • The following shows what the different colors of the alternate function key text mean. If key marking It means this: text is this color: Press and then the key to access Yellow the applicable function. Press and then the key to input the Red applicable variable, constant, or symbol. • The following shows an example of how an alternate function operation is represented in this User’s Guide. Example: @ Indicates the function that is accessed by the key operation (3 E) before it. Note that this is not part of the actual key operation you perform. • The following shows an example of how a key operation to select an on-screen menu item is represented in this User’s Guide. Example: D (Setup) Indicates the menu item that is selected by the number key operation before it. Note that this is not part of the actual key operation you perform.

****** Page 4 ****** • The cursor key is marked with four arrows, indicating direction, as shown in the illustration nearby. In this User’s Guide, cursor key operation is indicated as @ and @ < REPLAY • The displays and illustrations (such as key markings) shown in this User's Guide and the separate Appendix are for illustrative purposes only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items they represent. • The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice. • In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the purchase or use of this product and items that come with it. Moreover, CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. shall not be liable for any claim of any kind whatsoever by any other party arising out of the use of this product and the items that come with it. Using the Separate Appendix Whenever you see the symbol in this manual, it means you should refer to the separate Appendix. Example numbers (like in this User's Guide refer to the corresponding example number in the Appendix. Specify the angle unit in accordance with the marks in the Appendix: : Specify Degree for the angle unit. • Specify Radian for the angle unit. Initializing the Calculator Perform the following procedure when you want to initialize the calculator and return the calculation mode and setup to their initial default settings. Note that this operation also clears all data currently in calculator memory. • For information about calculation modes and setup settings, see "Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup". • For information about memory, see "Using Calculator Memory". ****** Page 5 ****** Safety Precautions Be sure to read the following safety precautions before using this calculator. Keep this manual handy for later reference. Caution This symbol is used to indicate information that can result in personal injury or material damage if ignored. Battery • After removing the battery from the calculator, put it in a safe place where it will not get into the hands of small children and accidentally swallowed. • Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. If accidentally swallowed, consult with a physician immediately. • Never charge the battery, try to take the battery apart, or allow the battery to become shorted. Never expose the battery to direct heat or dispose of it by incineration. • Improperly using a battery can cause it to leak and damage nearby items, and can create the risk of fire and personal injury. • Always make sure that the battery's positive O and negative ends are facing correctly when you load it into the calculator. • Remove the battery if you do not plan to use the calculator for a long time. • Use only the type of battery specified for this calculator in this manual. Disposing of the Calculator • Never dispose of the calculator by buming it. Doing so can cause certain components to suddenly burst, creating the risk of fire and personal injury. ****** Page 6 ****** Handling Precautions • Be sure to press the key before using the calculator for the first time. • Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every two years. A dead battery can leak, causing damage to and malfunction of the calculator. Never leave a dead battery in the calculator. • The battery that comes with this unit discharges slightly during shipment and storage. Because of this, it may require replacement sooner than the normal expected battery life. • Low battery power can cause memory contents to become corrupted or lost completely. Always keep written records of all important data. • Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to temperature extremes. Very low temperatures can cause slow display response, total failure of the display, and shortening of battery life. Also avoid leaving the calculator in direct sunlight, near a window, near a heater or anywhere else it might be exposed to very high temperatures. Heat can cause discoloration or deformation of the calculator's case, and damage to intemal circuitry. • Avoid use and storage of the calculator in areas subjected to large amounts of humidity and dust. Take care never to leave the calculator where it might be splashed by water or exposed to large amounts of humidity or dust. Such conditions can damage internal circuitry. • Never drop the calculator or otherwise subject it to strong impact. • Never twist or bend the calculator. Avoid carrying the calculator in the pocket of your trousers or other tight-fitting clothing where it might be subjected to twisting or bending. • Never try to take the calculator apart. • Never press the keys of the calculator with a ballpoint pen or other pointed object. • Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the calculator. If the calculator becomes very dirty, wipe it off with a cloth moistened in a weak solution of water and a mild neutral household detergent. Wring out all excess liquid before wiping the calculator. Never use thinner, benzene or other volatile agents to clean the calculator. Doing so can remove printed markings and can damage the case. ****** Page 7 ****** Before Using the Calculator Removing the Hard Case Before using the calculator, slide its hard case downwards to remove it, and then affix the hard case to the back of the calculator as shown in the illustration below. Q) D Turning Power On and Off • Press to turn on the calculator. • Press to turn off the calculator. Adjusting Display Contrast This displays the contrast adjustment screen. Use @ and @ to adjust display contrast. After the setting is the way you want, press CONTRAST LIGHT OARK • You can also adjust contrast using @ and @ while the mode menu (which appears when you press is on the display. Important! • If adjusting display contrast does not improve display readability, it probably means that battery power is low. Replace the battery. ****** Page 8 ****** About the Display Your calculator has a 31 -dot x 96-dot LCD screen. Example: Input expression Calculation result Display Indicators Poi 2 45 Sample Display: STAT This indicator: S M STO RCL STAT FIX SCI Math Disp Means this: The keypad has been shifted by pressing the key. The keypad will unshift and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. The alpha input mode has been entered by pressing the key. The alpha input mode will be exited and this indicator will disappear when you press a key. There is a value stored in independent memory, The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to assign a value to the variable. This indicator appears after you press a (STO). The calculator is standing by for input of a variable name to recall the variable's value. This indicator appears after you press The calculator is in the STAT Mode, The default angle unit is degrees. The default angle unit is radians. The default angle unit is grads. A fixed number of decimal places is in effect. A fixed number of significant digits is in effect. Math style is selected as the input/output format. Calculation history memory data is available and can be replayed, or there is more data above/below the current screen. The display currently shows an intermediate result of a multi-statement calculation. ****** Page 9 ****** Important! • For a very complex calculation or some other type of calculation that takes a long time to execute, the display may show only the above indicators (without any value) while it performs the calculation internally. Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup Calculation Modes When you want to perform this type of operation: General calculations Statistical and regression calculations Equation solution Generation of a number table based on an expression Specifying the Calculation Mode (I) Press to display the mode menu. 1 : COMP Select this mode: COMP STAT EQN TABLE Z: STAT 4: TABLE (2) Press the number key that corresponds to the mode you want to select. • To select the STAT Mode, for example, press Configuring the Calculator Setup Pressing displays the setup menu, which you can use to control how the calculations are executed and displayed. The setup menu has two screens, which you can jump between using @ and @ 1:Mth10 z:Line10 3: oes s: Gra 7: Sci 4: Rad 6:Fiz a: Norm I : ab/c 3: CMPLX S:Oisp 4: STAT 6: •CONT* • See "Adjusting Display Contrast" for information about how to use "<CONTS E-7 ****** Page 10 ****** Specifying the Input/Output Format For this input/output format: Perform this key operation: Math Linear D (MthlO) • Math format causes fractions, irrational numbers, and other expressions to be displayed as they are written on paper. • Linear format causes fractions and other expressions to be displayed in a single line. Math 22 15 Math Format 4,5+2ß Linear Format Specifying the Default Angle Unit To specify this as the default angle unit: Degrees Radians Grads It Perform this key operation: 900 —— radians 100 grads 2 Specifying the Number of Display Digits To specify this: Number of Decimal Places Number of Significant Digits Exponential Display Range Perform this key operation: or Calculation Result Display Examples • Fix: The value you specify (from O to 9) controls the number of decimal places for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed. Example: 100 + 7 = 14.286 (Fix3) 14.29 (Fix2) • Sci: The value you specify (from 1 to 10) controls the number of significant digits for displayed calculation results. Calculation results are rounded off to the specified digit before being displayed. Example: = 1.4286 x 10-1 (Sci5) 1.429 x 10-1 (Sci4) ****** Page 11 ****** • Norm: Selecting one of the two available settings (Norml, Norm2) determines the range in which results will be displayed in non- exponential format. Outside the specified range, results are displayed using exponential format. xl, xl 1010 Example: 200 = 5 x 10¯3 (Norml) 0.005 (Norm2) Specifying the Fraction Display Format To specify this fraction display format: Mixed Improper Perform this key operation: CD (ab/c) Specifying the Complex Number Display Format To specify this complex Perform this key operation: number format: Rectangular Coordinates (a-bbi) Polar Coordinates The complex number display format specifies the display format to be used for complex number solutions produced by equation operations in the EQN Mode. Specifying the Statistical Display Format Use the following procedure to turn display of the frequency (FREQ) column of the STAT Mode STAT editor screen on or off. To specify this: Show FREQ Column Hide FREQ Column Perform this key operation: Specifying the Decimal Point Display Format To specify this decimal point display format: Dot (0 Comma ( , ) Perform this key operation: B (Disp) O (Dot) • The setting you configure here is applied for calculation results only. The decimal point for input values is always a dot ****** Page 12 ****** Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings Performing the following procedure initializes the calculation mode and other setup settings as shown below. (Setup) B(Yes) This setting: Calculation Mode Input/Output Format Angle Unit Display Digits Fraction Display Format Complex Number Format Statistical Display Decimal Point Is initialized to this: COMP MthlO Deg Norm 1 d/c a+bi OFF Dot • To cancel initialization without doing anything, press @(Cancel) instead of Inputting Expressions and Values Inputting a Calculation Expression Using Standard Format Your calculator lets you input calculation expressions just as they are written. Then simply press the key to execute it. The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, functions, and parentheses. Example: 2 (5+4) —2 x (—3) = LINE Inputting a Function with Parenthesis 24 When you input any of the functions shown below, it is automatically input with the open parenthesis (() character. Next, you need to input the argument and the closing parenthesis ()). sin(, cos(, tan(, sin-1(, cos-l(, tan-i(, sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, sinh-i(, cosh-1(, tanh-l(, log(, In(, eA(, ION, C Abs(, Pol(, Rec(, Rnd( E-lO ****** Page 13 ****** Example: sin 30 LINE sin(3Ø) Pressing inputs "sin(". 0.5 • Note that the input procedure is different if you want to use Math format. For more information, see "Inputting with Math Format'. Omitting the Multiplication Sign You can omit the multiplication sign (x) in any of the following cases. • Before an open parentheses ( [O ): 2 (5 + 4), etc. • Before a function with parenthesis: 2 sin(30), 2 C (3), etc. • Before a variable name, constant, or random number: 20 x A, etc. Final Closed Parenthesis You can omit one or more closed parentheses that come at the end of a calculation, immediately before the key is pressed. For details. see "Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis". Displaying a Long Expression The display can show up to 14 characters at a time. Inputting the 15th character causes the expression to shift to the left. At this time, the < indicator appears to the left of the expression, indicating that it runs off the left side of the screen. Math Displayed portion: 42222+3333+4441 Cursor • When the indicator is displayed, you can scroll left and view the hidden part by pressing the @ key. This will cause the indicator to appear to the right of the expression. At this time, you can use the @ key to scroll back. Number of Input Characters (Bytes) • You can input up to 99 bytes of data for a single expression. Basically, each key operation uses up one byte. A function that requires two key operations to input (like )) also uses only one byte. Note, however, that when you are inputting functions with Math format, each item you input uses up more than one byte. For more information, see ulnputting with Math Format". E-11 ****** Page 14 ****** • Normally the input cursor appears as a straight vertical (l) or horizontal (—) flashing line on the display screen. When there are 10 or fewer bytes of input remaining in the current expression, the to let you know. If the cursor cursor changes shape to appears, terminate the expression at a convenient point and calculate the result. Correcting an Expression This section explains how to correct an expression as you are inputting it. The procedure you should use depends on whether you have insert or overwrite selected as the input mode. About the Insert and Overwrite Input Modes With the insert mode, the displayed characters shift to the left to make room when you input a new character. With the overwrite mode, any new character you input replaces the character at the current cursor position. The initial default input mode is insert. You can change to the overwrite mode when you need it. • The cursor is a vertical flashing line (l) when the insert mode is selected. The cursor is a horizontal flashing line (—) when the overwrite mode is selected. • The initial default for Linear format input is the insert mode. You can switch to the overwrite mode by pressing • With Math format, you can only use the insert mode. Pressing when the Math format is selected does not switch to the ovemrite mode. See "Incorporating a Value into a Function" for more information. • The calculator automatically changes to the insert mode whenever you change the input/output format from Linear to Math. Changing the Character or Function You Just Input Example: To correct the expression 369 x 13 so it becomes 369 x 12 LINE 369×131 369×11 363×121 E-12 ****** Page 15 ****** Deleting a Character or Function Example: To correct the expression 369 x 12 LINE Insert Mode: Overwrite Mode: Correcting a Calculation 369 x x 12 so it becomes 363xx121 363xx112 363×112 369xx12 363xx12 363×12 Example: To correct cos(60) so it becomes sin(60) LINE Insert Mode: Overwrite Mode: 160) sin(16Ø) cos(6Ø) cos(6Ø) sin(EØ) Inserting Input into a Calculation Always use the insert mode for this operation. Use @ or @ to move the cursor to the location where you want to insert new input, and then input what you want. E-13 ****** Page 16 ****** Displaying the Location of an Error If an error message (like "Math ERROR" or ßSyntax ERROR") appears when you press press @ or D. This will display the part of the calculation where the error occurred, with the cursor positioned at the error location. You can then make necessary corrections. Example: When you input 14+ O x2 = by mistake instead of 14 LINE 10×2= Use the insert mode for the following operation. Math ERROR CACJ : cancel : Goto Press or This is causing the error. 14+11Øx2 2.8 You can also exit the error screen by pressing which clears the calculation. Inputting with Math Format When inputting with Math format, you can input and display fractions and some functions using the same format as they appear in your textbook. Important! • Certain types of expressions can cause the height of a calculation formula to be greater than one display line. The maximum allowable height of a calculation formula is two display screens (31 dots x 2). Further input will become impossible if the height of the calculation you are inputting exceeds the allowable limit. • Nesting of functions and parentheses is allowed. Further input will become impossible if you nest too many functions and/or parentheses. If this happens, divide the calculation into multiple parts and calculate each part separately. E- 14 ****** Page 17 ****** Functions and Symbols Supported for Math Format Input • The gBytes" column shows the number of bytes of memory that are used up by input. Function/Symbol Improper Fraction Mixed Fraction log(a,b) (Logarithm) (Power of 10) eAx (Power of e) Square Root Cube Root Square, Cube Reciprocal Power Power Root Absolute Value Parentheses Math Format Input Examples Key Operation Bytes Eß(–s-) CO or D 9 13 6 4 4 4 9 4 5 4 9 4 • The following operations are all performed while Math format is selected. • Pay close attention to the location and size of the cursor on the display when you input using Math format. Example 1: To input 23+ 1 MATH Example 2: To input 1 + + 3 MATH 23+11 Math Math Math 1+121 1+12+31 E-15 ****** Page 18 ****** Example 3: To input (I + MATH • When you press @ and obtain a calculation result using Math format, part of the expression you input can be cut off as shown in the Example 3 screen shot. If you need to view the entire input expression again, press @ and then press @. Incorporating a Value into a Function When using Math format, you can incorporate part of an input expression (a value, an expression within parentheses, etc.) into a function. Example: To incorporate the expression inside of the parentheses of I + (2 + 3) + 4 into the function MATH I 2+3) +4 Move the cursor to here. This changes the shape of the cursor as shown here. Math 1+11tFäi+4 This incorporates the expression in the parentheses into the function • If the cursor is located left of a particular value or fraction (instead of an open parentheses), that value or fraction will be incorporated into the function specified here. • If the cursor is located left of function, the entire function is incorporated into the function specified here. The following examples show the other functions that can be used in the above procedure, and the required key operations to use them. Original Expression: Function Fraction log(a,b) Key Operation E-16 Resulting Expression ICZ+3) +4 ****** Page 19 ****** Function Power Root Key Operation Resulting Expression You can also incorporate values into the following functions. Displaying Calculation Results in a Form that Includes It, etc. (Irrational Number Form) When "MthlO' is selected for the input/output format, you can specify whether calculation results should be displayed in a form that includes expressions like Väand It (irrational number form). • Pressing after inputting a calculation displays the result using irrational number form. • Pressing after inputting a calculation displays the result using decimal values. Note • When "LinelO" is selected for the input/output format, calculation results are always displayed using decimal values (no irrational number form) regardless of whether you press or B. • Tt form (form that includes 11 within irrational number display) display conditions are the same as those for S-D conversion. For details, see "Using S-D Transformation" Example 1: 3vjä MATH Example 2: sin (60) — 2 MATH Math Math A 4.242640687 (Angle Unit: Deg) Math sin(6Ø E-17 ****** Page 20 ****** Example 3: sin-t (0.5) = MATH 1 6 (Angle Unit: Rad) Math A sin-I(Ø.5 • The following are the calculations for which form (form that includes within irrational number display) results can be displayed. a. Arithmetic calculations of values with square root symbol (C), b. Trigonometric function calculations The following are the input value ranges for which form is always used for display of trigonometric calculation results. Angle Unit Setting Deg Rad Gra Angle Value Input Units of 150 Multiples of — Tt radians 12 Multiples of — grads Input Value Range for Form Calculation Result IXI < 109 IXI < IXI < 10000 Calculation results may be displayed in decimal form for input values outside of the above ranges. Form Calculation Range Results that include square root symbols can have up to two terms (an integer term is also counted as a term). form calculation results use display formats like those shown below. ± (111b, ± d ± aW, ± The following shows the range for each of the coefficients (a, b, c, d, 1 100, 1 1000, 100 osd< 100, ose< 1000, 1 100 E-18 ****** Page 21 ****** Example: 350 x 3 = 148.492424 105Vä) 1500 8.485281374 25 23 x (5 — 2vtä) = 35.32566285 (z 115—46vtä) 100 + 15 x + 15 x (10Vä+ 3Cä) 290.0743207 + 5.595754113 form decimal form form decimal form form decimal form form decimal form The underlined areas in the above examples indicate what caused decimal form to be used. Reasons why the results of the examples are displayed in decimal form – Value outside of the allowable range More than two terms in the calculation result • Calculation results displayed in form are reduced to a common denominator. c • c' is the least common multiple of c and/ • Since calculation results are reduced to a common denominator, they are displayed in form even if coefficients (a', c', and d") are outside the corresponding ranges of coefficients (a, c, and d). Example 11 10 110 • The result is displayed in decimal form even when any intermediate result has three or more terms. Example: (l + – -8.898979486 • If a term is encountered during the calculation cannot be displayed asa root (vi¯) form or a fraction, the calculation result is displayed in decimal form. Example: log3 + 1.891334817 E-19 ****** Page 22 ****** Basic Calculations (COMP) This section explains how to perform arithmetic, fraction, percent, and sexagesimal calculations. All calculations in this section are performed in the COMP Mode Arithmetic Calculations Use the g), 8, 8, and (9 keysto perform arithmetic calculations. Example: 7×8-4×5=36 LINE ?x8-4×5 36 • The calculator automatically judges the calculation priority sequence. For more information, see "Calculation Priority Sequence". Number of Decimal Places and Number of Significant Digits You can specify a fixed number of decimal places and significant digits for the calculation result. Example: LINE Initial default setting (Norml) 3 decimal places (Fix3) 3 significant digits (Sci3) 1+6 1+6 1+6 o. 1666666667 FIX o. 167 @ Stä • For more information, see "Specifying the Numberof Display Digits". E-20 ****** Page 23 ****** Omitting a Final Closed Parenthesis You can omit any closed parenthesis ()) immediately preceding operation of the @ key at the end of a calculation. This is true only in the case of Linear format. Example: (2+3) x (4—1) = 15 LINE Fraction Calculations 15 How you should input fractions depends on the input/output format that is currently selected. Improper Fraction 7 Math Format 743 Linear Mixed Fraction 2— 3 241 '3 Numerator Denominator Integer Part Denominator Format Numerator • Under initial default settings, fractions are displayed as improper fractions. • Fraction calculation results are always reduced before being displayed. Appendix 21 7 2 11 3 —+ I — = 4 — (Fraction Display Format: ab/c) 4 3 12 1 4 —3 (Fraction Display Format: ab/c) • If the total number of digits used for a mixed fraction (including integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbols) is greater than 10, the value is automatically displayed in decimal format. • The result of a calculation that involves both fraction and decimal values is displayed in decimal format. Switching between Improper Fraction and Mixed Fraction Format Pressing the a-ö T ) key toggles the display fraction between mixed fraction and improper fraction format. E-21 ****** Page 24 ****** Switching between Fraction and Decimal Format 3+2 3+2 1.5 • The format of the fraction depends on the currently selected fraction display format setting (improper fraction or mixed fraction). • You cannot switch from decimal format to mixed fraction format if the total number of digits used in the mixed fraction (including integer, numerator, denominator, and separator symbols) is greater than 10. • For details about the key, see "Using S-D Transformation". Percent Calculations Inputting a value and pressing S O (0/0) causes the input value to become a percent. Appendix (1260) 2% 0.02 150 x = 30 Calculate what percentage of RRO is 660. Increase 2500 by 15%. (2875) Discount 3500 by 25%. (2625) (75%) Discount the sum of 168, 98, and 734 by 20%. (800) If 300 grams are added to a test sample originally weighing 500 grams, what is the percentage increase in weight? (160%) What is the percentage change when a value is increased from 40 to 46? How about to 48? (15%, 20%) Degree, Minute, Second (Sexagesimal) Calculations You can perform calculations using sexagesimal values, and convert values between sexagesimal and decimal. Inputting Sexagesimal Values The following is the syntax for inputting a sexagesimal value. {Degrees} G {Minutes} {Seconds} Appendix Input 20080". • Note that you must always input something for the degrees and minutes, even if they are zero. E-22 ****** Page 25 ****** Sexagesimal Calculations • Performing the following types of sexagesimal calculations produces a sexagesimal result. – Addition or subtraction of two sexagesimal values Multiplication or division of a sexagesimal value and a decimal value Appendix 39 '30" 300000" Converting Values between Sexagesimal and Decimal Pressing while a calculation result is displayed toggles the value between sexagesimal and decimal. Appendix Convert 2.255 to its sexagesimal equivalent. Using Multi-statements in Calculations You can use the colon character (:) to connect two or more expressions and execute them in sequence from left to right when you press Example: To create a multi-statement that performs the following two calculations: 3 + 3 and 3 x 3 LINE 3+3:3×31 3+3 ADisp "Dispn indicates this is an intermediate result of a multi-statement. 3×3 E-23 ****** Page 26 ****** Using Calculation History Memory and Replay (COMP) Calculation history memory maintains a record of each calculation expression you input and execute, and its result. You can use calculation history memory in the COMP Mode D) only. Recalling Calculation History Memory Contents Press@to back-step through calculation history memory contents. Calculation history memory shows both calculation expressions and results. Example: LINE 3+3 2+2 1+1 6 4 2 • Note that calculation history memory contents are cleared whenever you turn off the calculator, press the key, change to the calculation mode or the input/output format, or perform any reset operation. • Calculation history memory is limited. When the calculation you are performing causes calculation history memory to become full, the oldest calculation is deleted automatically to make room for the new calculation. Replay Function While a calculation result is on the display, you can press @ and then @ or @ to edit the expression you used for the previous calculation. If you are using Linear format, you can display the expression by pressing @ or O, without pressing @ first. Appendix E-24 ****** Page 27 ****** Using Calculator Memory Memory Name Description Answer Memory Stores the last calculation result obtained. Calculation results can be added to or Independent from independent memory. The "MH display Memory indicator indicates data in independent memory, Six variables named A, B, C, D, X, and Y can Variables be used for storage of individual values. This section uses the COMP Mode (Ü D) to demonstrate how you can use memory. Answer Memory (Ans) Answer Memory Overview • Answer Memory contents are updated whenever you execute a calculation using any one of the following keys: g, SO(M-), Answer Memory can hold up to 15 digits. • Answer Memory contents are not change if an error occurs during the current calculation. • Answer Memory contents are maintained even if you press the @ key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. Using Answer Memory to Perform a Series of Calculations Example: To divide the result of 3 x 4 by 30 LINE 3×4 12 Ans- 0.4 Pressing automatically inputs "Ans" command. • With the above procedure, you need to perform the second calculation immediately after the first one. If you need to recall Answer Memory contents after pressing @, press the key. E-25 ****** Page 28 ****** Inputting Answer Memory Contents into an Expression Example: To perform the calculations shown below. 123 + 456 579 LINE 789 – 579 = 210 123+456 789-Ans Independent Memory (M) 573 213 You can add calculation results to or subtract results from independent memory. The "M" appears on the display when ndependent memory contains a value. Independent Memory Overview • The following is a summary of the different operations you can perform using independent memory. To do this: Add the displayed value or result of the expression to independent memory Subtract the displayed value or result of the expression from independent memory Recall current independent memory contents Perform this key operation: • You can also insert the M variable into a calculation, which tells the calculator to use the current independent memory contents at that location. The following is the key operation for inserting the M variable. • The "M" indicator appears in the upper left of the display when there is any value other than zero stored in independent memory. • Independent memory contents are maintained even if you press the @ key, change the calculation mode, ortum off the calculator. E-26 ****** Page 29 ****** Calculation Examples Using Independent Memory • If the "M" indicator is on the display, perform the procedure under "Clearing Independent Memory' before performing this example. Example: 23 + 9 = 32 53 — 6 47 945 x 90 99 33 (Total) 22 Clearing Independent Memory Presso This clears independent memory and causes the "M" indicator to disappear from the display. Variables (A, B, C, D, X, Y) Variable Overview • You can assign a specific value or a calculation result to a variable. Example: To assign the result of 3 + 5 to variable A. • Use the following procedure when you want to check the contents of a variable. Example: To recall the contents of variable A • The following shows how you can include variables inside of an expression. Example: To multiply the contents of variable A by the contents of variable B • Variable contents are maintained even if you press the @ key, change the calculation mode, or turn off the calculator. Appendix Clearing the Contents of a Specific Variable Press @ a (STO) and then press the key for the name of the variable whose contents you want to clear. To clear the contents of variable A, for example, press a Clearing the Contents of All Memories Use the following procedure to clear the contents of Answer Memory, independent memory, and all of the variables. Press (Memory) g (Yes). • To cancel the clear operation without doing anything, press @(Cancel) instead Of @ E-27 ****** Page 30 ****** Function Calculations This section explains how to use the calculator's built-in functions. The functions available to you depends on the calculation mode you are in. The explanations in this section are mainly about the functions that are available in all calculation modes. All of the examples in this section show operation in the COMP Mode • Certain function calculations may take some time to display calculation results, Before performing an operation, be sure to wait until execution of the current operation is complete. You can interrupt an ongoing operation by pressing @ Pi (It) and Natural Logarithm Base e You can input pi (It) or natural logarithm base e into a calculation. The following shows the required key operations and the values this calculator uses for pi (it) and e. 3.14159265358980 (S e 2.71828182845904 (Z Ü(e)) Trigonometric and Inverse Trigonometric Functions • The angle unit required by trigonometric and inverse trigonometric functions is one specified as the calculator's default angle unit. Before performing a calculation, be sure to specify the default angle unit you want to use. See "Specifying the Default Angle Unit' for more information. Appendix sin 30 = 0.5, sin¯lO.5 = 30 Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions Pressing the 8 key displays a menu of functions. Press the number key that corresponds to the function you want to input. = 1.175201194, cosh-1 1 = o Appendix sinh E-28 ****** Page 31 ****** Converting an Input Value to the Calculator's Default Angle Unit After inputting a value, press to display the angle unit specification menu shown below. Press the number key that corresponds to the angle unit of the input value. The calculator will automatically convert it to the calculator's default angle unit. Example: To convert the following values to degrees: — radians 900, 50 grads 450 2 The following procedure assumes that the calculator's default angle unit is degrees. LINE (Jt+2)r 509 45 Appendix cos (It radians) = —1, cos (100 grads) = O cos-l 180 cos-l (—1) = It Exponential Functions and Logarithmic Functions • For the logarithmic function “log(“, you can specify base m using the syntax “log (m, n)”. If you input only a single value, a base of 10 is used for the calculation. • “In(” is a natural logarithm function with base e. • You can also use the key when inputting an expression with the form of “Iogmn” while using Math format. For details, see Appendix . Note that you must input the base (base m) when using the S) key for input. A base of 10 (common logarithm) is used if no base is specified. E-29

****** Page 32 ****** Power Functions and Power Root Functions Rectangular-Polar Coordinate Conversion Poi Rec x Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) x Polar Coordinates (Poi) • Coordinate conversion can be performed in the COMP and STAT calculation modes. Converting to Polar Coordinates (POI) POI(X, Y) X: Specifies the rectangular coordinate X value Y: Specifies the rectangular coordinate Y value • Calculation result Bis displayed in the range of —1800 < 9 $ 1800. • Calculation result 0 is displayed using the calculator's default angle unit. • Calculation result r is assigned to variable X, while Ois assigned to Y. Converting to Rectangular Coordinates (Rec) r: Specifies r value of polar coordinate 0 : Specifies value of polar coordinate • Input value Ois treated as an angle value, in accordance with the calculator's default angle unit setting. • Calculation result x is assigned to variable X, while y is assigned to Y. • If you perform coordinate conversion inside of an expression instead of a stand-alone operation, the calculation is performed using only the first value (either the r-value or the X-value) produced by the conversion. Example: POI 5 2 + 5 = 7 Appendix to E-30 ****** Page 33 ****** Other Functions This section explains how to use the functions shown below. Abs(, Ran#, nPr, nCr, Rnd( Factorial (!) This function obtains the factorials of a value that is zero or a positive integer. Appendix (5 + 3)! = 40320 Absolute Value Calculation (Abs) When you are performing a real number calculation, this function simply obtains the absolute value. Appendix Abs (2 — 7) 5 Random Number (Ran#) This function generates a 3-digit pseudo random number that is less than I Appendix Generate three 3-digit random numbers. The random 3 digit decimal values are converted to 3-digit integer values by multiplying by 1000. Note that the values shown here are examples only. Values actually generated by your calculator will be different. Permutation (nPr) and Combination (nCr) These functions make it possible to perform permutation and combination calculations. n and r must be integers in the range of O $ r $ n < 1 x 1010. Appendix How many four-person permutations and combinations are possible fora group of 10 people? Rounding Function (Rnd) This function rounds the value or the result of the expression in the function’s argument to the number of significant digits specified by the number of display digits setting. Display Digits Setting: Norml or Norm2 The mantissa is rounded to 10 digits. E-31

****** Page 34 ****** Display Digits Setting: Fix or Sci The value is rounded to the specified number of digits. Example: 200 +7 x 14-400 LINE (Specifies three decimal places.) FIX (Calculation is performed internally using 15 digits.) FIX 28.571 FIX Ansx14 The following performs the same calculation with rounding. FIX 20+7 (Round the value to the specified number of digits.) Rnd(Ans (Check rounded result.) Ansx14 28.571 FIX 28.571 FIX 399.994 E-32

****** Page 35 ****** Transforming Displayed Values You can use the procedures in this section to transform a displayed value to engineering notation, orto transform between standard form and decimal form. Using Engineering Notation A simple key operation transforms a displayed value to engineering notation. Appendix Transform the value 1,234 to engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the right. Transform the value 123 to engineering notation, shifting the decimal point to the left. Using S-D Transformation You can use S-D transformation to transform a value between its decimal (D) form and its standard (S) form (fraction, a). Formats Supported for S-D Transformation S-D transformation can be used to transform a displayed decimal calculation result to one of the forms described below. Performing S-D transformation again converts back to the original value. Note • When you transform from decimal form to standard form, the calculator automatically decides the standard form to use. You cannot specify the standard form. Fraction: The current fraction display format setting determines It: whether the result is an improper fraction or mixed fraction. The following are the It forms that are supported. This is true only in the case of Math format. Tilt (nis an integer.) It or a (depending on fraction display format c setting) • Transformation to a fractional It form is limited to inverse trigonometric function results and values that are normally expressed in radians. • After obtaining a calculation result in form, you can convert it to decimal form by pressing the key. When the original calculation result is in decimal form, it cannot be converted to form. E-33

****** Page 36 ****** Examples of S-D Transformation Note that S-D transformation can take some time to perform. Example: Fraction —5 Decimal MATH Math A s • Each press of the key toggles between the two forms. Appendix Jt Fraction —Y Decimal —+ Decimal Statistical Calculation (STAT) All calculations in this section are performed in the STAT Mode Selecting a Statistical Calculation Type In the STAT Mode, display the statistical calculation type selection screen. Statistical Calculation Types Key Menu Item I-VAR In X eAX A.BAX A.XAB Statistical Calculation Single-variable Linear regression Quadratic regression Logarithmic regression e exponential regression ab exponential regression Power regression Inverse regression E-34

****** Page 37 ****** Inputting Sample Data Displaying the STAT Editor Screen The STAT editor screen appears after you enter the STAT Mode from another mode. Use the STAT menu to select a statistical calculation type. To display the STAT editor screen from another STAT Mode screen, press CD STAT Editor Screen There are two STAT editor screen formats, depending on the type of statistical calculation you selected. STAT 3 Single-variable Statistics STAT 2 3 Paired-variable Statistics • The first line of the STAT editor screen shows the value for the first sample or the values for their first pair of samples. FREQ (Frequency) Column If you turn on the Statistical Display item on the calculator’s setup screen, a column labeled TREQ” will also be included on the STAT editor screen. You can use the FREQ column to specify the frequency (the number of times the same sample appears in the group of data) of each sample value. Rules for Inputting Sample Data on the STAT Editor Screen • Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. Use the cursor keys to move the cursor between cells. STAT 3 Cursor • The values and expressions you can input on the STAT editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode with Linear format. • Pressing @ while inputting data clears your current input. • After inputting a value, press g. This registers the value and displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell. E-35

****** Page 38 ****** Example: To input the value 123.45 in cell XI (Move the cursor to cell XI STAT 3 123.4Sl The value you input appears in the formula area. STAT Registering a value causes the cursor to move down one cell. STAT Editor Screen Input Precautions • The number of lines in STAT editor screen (the number of sample data values you can input) depends on the type of statistical data you selected, and on the Statistical Display setting of the calculator’s setup screen. Statistical OFF Display Statistic Type Single-variable Paired-variable (No FREQ column) 80 lines 40 lines ON (FREQ column) 40 lines 26 lines • The following types of input are not allowed on the STAT editor screen. • 9, a O(M—) operations • Assignment to variables (STO) Precautions Concerning Sample Data Storage Sample data you input is deleted automatically whenever you change to another mode from the STAT Mode or change the Statistical Display setting (which causes the FREQ column to be shown or hidden) on the calculator’s setup screen. Editing Sample Data Replacing the Data in a Cell (1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the cell you want to edit. (2) Input the new data value or expression, and then press Important! • Note that you must totally replace the existing data of the cell with new input. You cannot edit parts of the existing data. Deleting a Line (1) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line you want to delete. (2) Press 9. E-36

****** Page 39 ****** Inserting a Line (I) On the STAT editor screen, move the cursor to the line that will be under the line you will insert. (2) Press (STAT) (3) Press O (Ins). Important! • Note that the insert operation will not work if the maximum number of lines allowed for the STAT editor screen are already used. Deleting All STAT Editor Contents (1) Press (STAT) (2) Press • This clears all of the sample data on the STAT editor screen. Note • Note that you can perform the procedures under *’Inserting a Line” and “Deleting All STAT Editor Contents” only when the STAT editor screen is on the display. STAT Calculation Screen The STAT calculation screen is for performing statistical calculations with the data you input with the STAT editor screen. Pressing the @ key while the STAT editor screen is displayed switches to the STAT calculation screen. The STAT calculation screen also uses Linear format, regardless of the current input/output format setting on the calculator’s setup screen. Using the STAT Menu While the STAT editor screen or STAT calculation screen is on the display, press to display the STAT menu. The content to the STAT menu depends on whether the currently selected statistical operation type uses a single variable or paired variables. i : Type 3: Edit s: var 2: Oata 4: Sum 6: Mi nMaz 1 : TYPe 3: Edit s: var 7: Reg z: oata 4 : Sum 6:MinMaz Single-variable Statistics Paired-variable Statistics E-37

****** Page 40 ****** STAT Menu Items Common Items Select this When you want to do this: menu item: @Data @Edit @Var Display the statistical calculation type selection screen Display the STAT editor screen Display the Edit sub-menu for editing STAT editor screen contents Display the Sum sub-menu of commands for calculating sums Display the Var sub-menu of commands for calculating the mean, standard deviation, etc. Display the MinMax sub-menu of commands for @Min Max obtaining maximum and minimum values Paired-variable Menu Item Select this When you want to do this: menu item: Display the Reg sub-menu of commands for regression calculations • For details see “Commands when Linear Reg Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is SelectedØ and “Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected”. Single-variable (I-VAR) Statistical Calculation Commands The following are the commands that appear on the sub-menus that appear when you select or on the STAT menu while a single-variable statistical calculation type is selected. See Appendix for information about the calculation formula used for each command. Sum Sub-menu (STAT) (D (Sum)) Select this When you want to obtain this: menu item: Sum of squares of the sample data Sum of the sample data E-38

****** Page 41 ****** Var Sub-menu Select this When you want to obtain this: menu item: Number of samples Mean of the sample data Population standard deviation Sample standard deviation MinMax Sub-menu (S n Select this menu item: CD minx @maxX When you want to obtain this: Minimum value Maximum value Appendix Single-variable Statistical Calculation Select single-variable (I -VAR) and input the following data: {1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} (FREQ ON) Edit the data to the following, using insert and delete: {0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10} (FREQ ON) Edit the FREQ data to the following: (FREQ ON) • Examples through all use the same data as Example . Calculate sum of squares of the sample data and sum of the sample data. Calculate number of samples, mean, and population standard deviation, Calculate minimum value and maximum value. Commands when Linear Regression Calculation (A+BX) Is Selected With linear regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y=A+BX The following are the commands that appear on the sub-menus that appear when you select @(Sum), (MinMax), or on the STAT menu while linear regression is selected as the statistical calculation type. See Appendix for information about the calculation formula used for each command. E-39

****** Page 42 ****** Sum Sub-menu (STAT) (D (Sum)) Select this When you want to obtain this: menu item: @Ery Sum of squares of the X-data Sum of the X-data Sum of squares of the Y-data Sum of the Y-data Sum of products of the X-data and Y-data Sum of cubes of the X-data Sum of (X-data squares x Y-data) Sum of biquadrate of the X-data Var Sub-menu n Select this menu item: @XOn [Oxon-i Dyon When you want to obtain this: Number of samples Mean of the X-data Population standard deviation of the X-data Sample standard deviation of the X-data Mean of the Y-data Population standard deviation of the Y-data Sample standard deviation of the Y-data MinMax Sub-menu (3 Select this menu item: D minx @maxX @miny @maxY When you want to obtain this: Minimum value of the X-data Maximum value of the X-data Minimum value of the Y-data Maximum value of the Y-data Reg Sub-menu (E D(STAT) Select this When you want to obtain this: menu item: Regression coefficient constant term A Regression coefficient B Correlation coefficient r Estimated value of x Estimated value of y E-40

****** Page 43 ****** Linear Regression Calculation: to • Examples through all use the data input in Example Estimated Value (v = —3 *2 Estimated Value (x = 2 j = ? ) Commands when Quadratic Regression Calculation (_+CX2) Is Selected With quadratic regression, regression is performed in accordance with the following model equation. y + BX+ CX2 See for information about the calculation formula used for each command. Reg Sub-menu (3 D(STAT) Select this When you want to obtain this: menu item: Regression coefficient constant term A Linear coefficient B of the regression coefficients Quadratic coefficient C of the regression coefficients Estimated value of Xl Estimated value of x2 Estimated value of y • Sum sub-menu (sums), Var sub-menu (numberof samples, mean, standard deviation), and MinMax sub-menu (maximum value, minimum value) operations are the same those for linear regression calculations. Appendix Quadratic Regression Calculation: to • Examples through all use the data input in Example Comments for Other Types of Regression For details about the calculation formula of the command included in each regression type, refer to the indicated calculation formulas Appendix to ). Statistical Calculation Type Logarithmic Regression (In X) e Exponential Regression Model Equation y=A+BlnX y A eBX E-41 Calculation Formula

****** Page 44 ****** Statistical Calculation Type Model Equation Calculation Formula ab Exponential Regression y = ABX (A.BAX) Power Regression (A•XAB) y = Inverse Regression (I/X) y = A + Appendix Comparison of Regression Curves • The following example uses the data input in Example . Compare the correlation coefficient for logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, power, and inverse regression. (FREQ OFF) Appen ix OtherTypes of Regression Calculation: to Command Usage Tips • The commands included in the Reg sub-menu can take a long time to execute in logarithmic, e exponential, ab exponential, or power regression calculation when there are a large number of data samples. Equation Calculations (EQN) All calculations in this section are performed in the EQN Mode Equation Types An equation type menu appears when you (EQN) and enter the EQN Mode. Key Menu Item + bnY Cn Equation Type Simultaneous Linear Equations with Two Unknowns Simultaneous Linear Equations with Three Unknowns Quadratic Equation Cubic Equation E-42

****** Page 45 ****** Changing the Current Equation Type Setting Press to re-enter the EQN Mode. This clears all current EQN Mode input and displays the equation type menu described above. Inputting Coefficients Use the coefficient editor screen to input the coefficients of an equation. The coefficient editor screen shows input cells for each of the coefficients required by the currently selected equation type. o Cubic equation o o o Simultaneous linear equations with two unknowns Rules for Inputting and Editing Coefficients • Data you input is inserted into the cell where the cursor is located. When you register input into a cell, the cursor moves to the next cell to the right. • When simultaneous linear equations with three unknowns or cubic equation is selected as the equation type, the d column will not be visible on the display when the coefficient editor screen is first displayed. The d column will become visible when you move the cursor to it, which causes the screen to shift. • The values and expressions you can input on the coefficient editor screen are the same as those you can input in the COMP Mode with Linear format. • Pressing @ while inputting data clears your current input. • After inputting data, press @.This registers the value and displays up to six of its digits in the currently selected cell. • To change the contents of a cell, use the cursor keys to move the cursor to the cell and then input the new data. Initializing All Coefficients to Zero You can clear all coefficients to zero by pressing the @ key while inputting values on the coefficient editor screen. Coefficient Editor Screen Input Precautions Coefficient editor screen precautions are basically the same as those for the STAT editor screen. The only difference is that the first STAT editor screen precaution does not apply in the case of the coefficient editor screen. For details, seeßSTAT Editor Screen Input Precautions”. E-43

****** Page 46 ****** Solution Display After inputting and registering values on the coefficient editor screen, press @ to display the solution(s) for the equation. • Each press of displays the next solution, if there is one. Pressing while the final solution is displayed returns to the coefficient editor screen. • In the case of simultaneous linear equations, you can use @ and @ to switch the display between the solutions for X and Y (and • When there are multiple solutions fora quadratic or cubic equation, you can use the @ and @ keys to scroll the display between XI , X2, and Xg. The actual number of solutions depends on the equation. • Pressing @ while a solution is displayed will return to the coefficient editor screen. • The display format of solutions is in accordance with the input/ output format and complex number display format settings of the calculator’s setup screen. • Note that you cannot transform values to engineering notation while an equation solution is displayed. Equation Calculation: to Generating a Number Table from a Function (TABLE) All calculations in this section are performed in the TABLE Mode Configuring a Number Table Generation Function The procedure below configures the number table generation function with the following settingsg 1 Function: flx) = x2 + — 2 Start Value: I, End Value: 5, Step Value: I LINE (2) Input the function. E-44

****** Page 47 ****** (3) After making sure the function is the way you want, press B. • This displays the start value input screen. Start? Indicates the initial default start value of I. • If the initial value is not 1, press to specify the initial start value for this example. (4) After specifying the start value, press • This displays the end value input screen. End? Indicates the initial default end 5 value of 5. • Specify the end value. (5) After specifying the end value, press @ • This displays the step value input screen. Indicates the initial default step 1 value of • Specify the step value. • For details about specifying the start, end, and step values, see “Start, End, and Step Value Rules”. (6) After specifying the step value, press 2 3 3 1 • Pressing the @ key returns to the function editor screen. Supported Function Types • Except for the X variable, other variables (A, B, C, D, Y) and independent memory (M) are all treated as values (the current variable assigned to the variable or stored in independent memory). • Only variable X can be used as the variable of a function. • The coordinate conversion (POI, Rec) functions cannot be used for a number table generation function. • Note that the number table generation operation causes the contents of variable X to be changed. E-45

****** Page 48 ****** Start, End, and Step Value Rules • Linear format is always used for value input. • You can specify either values or calculation expressions (which must produce a numeric result) for Start, End, and Step. • Specifying an End value that is less than the Start value causes an error, so the number table is not generated. • The specified Start, End, and Step values should produce a maximum of 30 x-values for the number table being generated. Executing a number generation table using a Start, End, and Step value combination that produces more than 30 x-values causes an error. Note • Certain functions and Start, End, Step value combinations can cause number table generation to take a long time. Number Table Screen The number table screen shows x-values calculated using the specified Start, End, and Step values, as well as the values obtained when each x-value is substituted in the function fix). • Note that you can use the number table screen for viewing values only. Table contents cannot be edited. • Pressing the @ key returns to the function editor screen. TABLE Mode Precautions Note that changing the input/output format settings (Math format or Linear format) on the calculator’s setup screen while in the TABLE Mode clears the number table generation function. Technical Information Calculation Priority Sequence The calculator performs calculations according to a priority sequencz • Basically, calculations are performed from left to right. • Expressons within parentheses have the highest priority. • The following shows the priority sequence for each individUaI command. with POI(, Rec( sin(, cos(, tan(, sin 1 ( , tan¯l ( , sinh(, cosh(, tanh(, cosh¯ log(, In(, efl, Rnd( 2. Functions preceded by values powers, power roots: Percent % 3, Fractions: (lb/c E-46

****** Page 49 ****** 4. 5. 6. 7. g. Prefix symbol: (—) (negative sign) Statistical estimated value calculation: i, S, Permutations, nPr, nCr Multiplication and division: x, Multiplication where sign is omitted: Multiplication sign omitted immediately before It, e, variables (27t, ltA, etc.), functions with parenthlses (2v’¯ Asin(30), etc.) Addition and subtraction: +, — If a calculation contains a value, ycu may need to enclose the negative value in parentheses. If you want to square the value —2, for example, you need to input: (—2)2. This is 12 is a function preceded by a value (Priority 2, above), whose priority is greater than the negative sign, which is a prefix symbol (Priority 4). Example: Multiplication and division, and rnultiplication where the sign is omitted are the same priority (Priority 7), so these are pelformed from left to when both types are mixed in the same calculation. Enclosing an operation within parentheses causes it to be performed first, so the use Of parentheses can result in different calculation results. Example: Stack Limitations 1 +21t 1.570796327 0.1591549491 This calculator uses memory areas called stacks to temporarily store lower calculation priority sequence values, commancßs and functions. The numeric stack has iO levels and the command stack has 24 levels, as shown in the illustration 2 x ( (3+4 x (5+4)+ 3) + 5) +8- Numeric Stack Command Stack O 19 15 2 3 4 5 4 A Stat* ERROR when the calculation are performing causes the of either to be exceeded. E-47

****** Page 50 ****** Calculation Ranges, Number of Digits, and Precision The range, number of digits lßed for internal and precision the type Of (%ilculation you are performing, Calculation Range and Precision Calculation Range Number of Digits for Internal Cal(1Jlation Precision x 10-99 to x 1099 or o 15 digits In general, at the digit for a single calculation. Precision for exponential display is at the least significant digit. Errors are cumulative in the case Of conseautive calculations. Function Calculation Input Ranges and Precision Functions cosx tanX sin¯lx tan—lx sinhX coshr sinh—tx cosh—I X tanhr tanh—lx Iogt/1nr nPr nCr DEG RAD GRA DEG RAD GRA DEG RAD GRA Input Range IXI <9xt09 IXI <157079632.7 < I x IOIO IXI sgx109 IXI <157079632.7 <Ix1010 Same as sinx, except when (2n—1) x90. Sarne as sinr, except when lxl= (2/1—1) XIL/2. Same as sinr, except when IXI- (2n—1) x 100. IXI IXI IXI *290.2585092 *4.gggggggggx1099 1099 sg.gggggggggx1099 sg.gggggggggxlo-l x 1099 -9.999999999* 99.99999999 -9.999999999x 2302585092 lxl<lx 1050 lxl< Ix 10100; lxl< Ix X 69 (X is an integer) n < 1 x1010, os r n (n, r are integers) 13 < 1 x 10100 n < I x 1010, r n (n, r are integers) n!/rl < ixiOi00 orl* < i x 10100 E-48 ****** Page 51 ****** Functions Input Range lxl, Iyl Pol(x, y) x2+Y2 sg.gggggggggx1099 r *9.99999999'9x Rec(r, 0) O: Same as Simr lal, b, c < lxlo: —I x 10100 (H) m 1<0: y=n, (m, n are integers) However: —l x 10100 cyloglxl<lOO x O, —I x 10100<1/1 logy<IOO 2-11+1 Y<O: x=2n+1, (m O; m, n are integers) m However: —1 xl 0100 <l/x loglyl<l Total of integer, numerator, and denominator must 10 digits or less (including division marks). • Precision is basically the same as thatdescribed under "Calculation Range and Precision* , above, • A(XY), 3'1¯, x!, nPr, nCr type functions require consecutive intemal calculation, which can cause accumulation of errors that occur with each • Error is cumulative and tends to be large in the vicinity of a functionS singular Pint and inflection point. Error Messages The calculator will dsplay an error message wherl a result exceeds the calculatim range, when you attempt an input, or whenever any other similar probem occurs. When an error message appears… The following are general operations you can use when any error message appears. • Pressing @ or @ cfisplays to the calculation expression editing screen ycn.l were using before the error message appeared, with the cursor located at the position of the error For more information, see "Displaying the Location of an • Pressing @ dears the expression before the error message appeared. You can then re-input and re-execmte the if you want. Note that in this the original will not be retained in calculation history memory. Math ERROR • Cause • The intermediate or final result of the calculation you are performing exceeds the allowable calculation E-49 ****** Page 52 ****** • Your input exceeds the allowable input range (particularly when using functions). • The you are performing contains an illegal mathematical operatm (such as divism by zero), • Action • Check the input values, reduce the number of digits, and try agaim • When uülg independent men-tory or a variable as the argument of a functm, make sure that the memory or variable value is within the allowable range for the functm. Stack ERROR Cause • The calculation you are pefforming has caused the of the numeric stack or the command stack to be exceeded. • Action • Simplify the expression so it does not exceed the capacity of the stack. • Try splitting the into two or more parts, Syntax ERROR • cause • There is a problem with the format of the cnlcmlation you are FY2rforming. • Action • Make necessary corrections. Insufficient MEM Error Cause • There is not enough memory to pelform your calculation. • Action • Narrow the table (%ilculation range by changing the Start, End, and Step values, and try again. Before assuming malfunction of the calculator… Perform the following steps whenever an error occurs during a cnlculation or when results are not what you expected. If one step doæ not correct the probern, move to the next step, Note that you should make separate copies of important data before performing these stepe (1) Check the calculation to make sure that it not contain any (2) Make sure that you are using the correct mode for the type of calculation you are trying to perform. (3) If the above steps do not correct your problem, press the key. will cause the to perform a routine that ched«s whether czlculation functions are operating correctlv If the calculator discovers any abnormality, it automatically initializes the calculation mode and clears memory contents. For details about initialized settings, see "Initializing the Calculation Mode and Other Settings" under "Calculation Modes and Calculator Setup". (4) Initialize all modes and settings by performing the following operation: E-50 ****** Page 53 ****** Reference Power Requirements and Battery Replacement This calculator is powered by a single AAA-size battery (R03 (UM- Replacing the Battery Dim figures on the display of the calculator indicate that battery power is low. Continued use of the calculator when the battery is low can result in improper operation. Replace the battery as soon as possible when display figures becomes dim. Even if the calculator is operating normally, replace the battery at least once every two years. Important! • Removing the battery from the calculator causes independent memory contents and values assigned to variables to be cleared. 13) Press to turn off the Screw calculator. @ On the back of the calculator, remove the screws and the back cover. ($) Remove the old battery. @ Load a new battery into the calculator with its positive O and negative e ends facing correctly. (5) Replace the back cover and secure it in place with its screwe (6) Perform the following key operation: Screw • Make sure you perform the above key operation. Do not skip it. Auto Power Off Your calculator will turn off automatically if you do not perform any operation for about six minutes. If this happens, press the key to tum the calculator back on. E-51 ****** Page 54 ****** Specifications Power Requirements: AAA-size battery: R03 (UM-4) x I Battery Life: Approximately 17,000 hours (continuous display of flashing cursor) Power Consumption: 0.0002 W Operating Temperature: OOC to 400C Dimensions: 13.7 (H) x 80 (W) x 161 (D) mm 9/16" (H) x 31/8" (W) x 65/16" (D) Approximate Weight: 110 g (3.9 oz) including the battery Bundled Items: Hard Case E-52 ****** Page 55 ****** CASIO CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD. 6-2, Hon-machi I-chome Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan SA0411-A Printed in China

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